Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are generally incompetent for mating with others and hard to sporulate. Physical and functional analyses of Kyokai no. Revendeur Belstaff France 7, a typical sake yeast, revealed that it has functional a and a mating-type genes and the mating incompetency has the regular non-mater phenotype due to a2 and a1-a2 repression. An effective selection method for isolation of mating-competent mutants of this strain was developed using plasmids bearing fused Belstaff Blouson Toxic Man genes, STE6p-PHO5 and MFa1p-PHO5, consisting of the promoter of STE6, an a-specific gene, and MFa1, an a-specific gene, respectively, connected to the coding region of PHO5 encoding repressible acid phosphatase. Mating-competent mutants having the a or a mating type were selected by Boutique Belstaff Belgique detection of repressible acid phosphatase activity by specific staining of colonies. This method was applied successfully to two other sake yeasts. Hybrid yeast strains superior for sake making were constructed by crossing these mating-competent derivatives.
This examination of the temporal dynamics of the international Monday effect is based on 50 countries. Observed between-country differences are characterised by an economic factor based on four indices. The prior day effect captures the tendency for price changes to follow those on the prior day. A bad (good) day occurs when the price change on the prior day is negative (positive). A panel regression with panel corrected standard errors, is used to characterise the way that the Monday effect and the cognate prior day effect systematically vary between countries over the period 1994 to 2006. At the start of the data in 1994, there is a considerable prior day effect which is larger for poor countries. This between-country difference declines over time and has essentially disappeared by 2006. The bad non-Monday effect and the bad-Monday effect also decline over time. Further analysis with six leading economies provides evidence that the prior day influence on Mondays and non-Mondays dates back to at least 1973.