Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small enveloped virus containing partially double-stranded DNA. The DNA and HBV-specific DNA polymerase are surrounded by the HBV core antigen (HBcAg), which in turn is surrounded by a lipoprotein envelope containing the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Serum of HBV-infected patients contains complete virus particles, as well as non-infectious spherical or filamentous HBsAg particles. Acute hepatitis is characterized by the appearance of serum HBV markers, including HBsAg and IgM anti-HBc, which then disappear during convalescence. Persistence of HBsAg for more than 6 months indicates a carrier state. Chronic hepatitis develops in 90% of newborns who become infected, compared with 29–40% of children infected and Boutique Parajumpers Paris 5–10% of adults infected. The immune status of the infected person also influences the development of chronic hepatitis. Chronic HBV infection can be diagnosed by serology (identification of HBsAg and HBV DNA), biochemistry (elevated aminotransferase levels) and liver biopsy. The last is important to assess the severity of disease, its stage and prognosis, and to exclude other hepatic diseases. The outcome of chronic HBV infection varies between individuals, with estimated 5-year survivals of 97% for chronic persistent hepatitis, 86% Parajumper Doudoune Homme for chronic active hepatitis, and 55% for chronic active hepatitis with cirrhosis. Treatment with interferon α is effective Parajumper Cuir Femme in up to 40% of cases, but in view of the very large number of infected people worldwide, vaccination to prevent spread of the disease is a more cost-effective option.