The recovery of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from spent mushroom compost was assessed using a variety of physical and chemical treatments. Maximum recoveries of active xylanase activity were detected in extracts from spent compost which had been physically treated by blending. A range of lignocellulose-degrading activities was also recovered from blended compost extracts; peroxidases, the xylan-debranching enzymes acetylesterase and arabinofuranosidase, and the cellulose-degrading activities endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase and β-glucosidase. The compost extract was also shown to be capable of releasing reducing sugars (12 nmol min−1 g compost−1) from wheat straw. Characterization of the stability of this enzyme activity showed that maximum activity could be detected between pH 7 and 9 and after 1 h incubation at 65°C. The activity and stability of the enzymes suggest a potential role for enzyme cocktails from compost extracts in the biological upgrading of grass lignocelluloses to animal fodder.
Store layout is a critical factor driving consumer elaboration Belstaff Classic and response in retailing. While considerable attention has focused on store layout in relation to brick and mortar retailing, store layout has been virtually ignored in the study of online retailing, a critical limitation in the literature given its performance implications. In this study, information processing theory and aspects of the technology acceptance model (TAM) are used to Belstaff Classic Tourist Trophy Beige theorize how two types of online store layout (tree and tunnel web site structures) influence consumer elaboration and response. Results of an experiment indicate that consumers exposed to a tree structured online store layout perceived the store to be easier to use, Belstaff Roadmaster experienced greater elaboration of product related information, had higher levels of product and brand recall, greater purchase intentions and a more positive attitude toward the retailer than those exposed to a tunnel structure online store layout. Implications for academics and practitioners are discussed.